I have an old 6 hp, 600 rpm Lister diesel engine that’s been running on waste veggie oil for about six months. It drives a 3-kilowatt, 240 VAC, 60 Hz generator, which powers various equipment in my shop.
I’m now wondering if I might convert it to back-feed the grid to take advantage of net metering. Aside from any legal issues, what would I need technically? Can the AC generator work with some kind of grid-tie inverter to back-feed the grid, or would I need a DC generator? If this could work, what type, voltage, and brand of grid-tie inverter would work best? I would like to run the generator for eight to 10 hours a day to offset some of our electrical loads. Though it will not be enough to run the whole farm, it could offset a good portion of our electricity use.
George Berz • Fresno, California
Congratulations, George. You’ve made an important piece of internal combustion history come alive! Diesel-fueled stationary engines from the U.K.-based R.A. Lister Company were first produced in 1929. They are legendary for their low fuel consumption and tolerance of varied fuels, plus quiet, reliable, and low-rpm operation. Lister clones are still produced in India, and are widely used there for pumping water and generating electricity in remote areas.
However, using this engine and generator to offset a portion of your electricity use may not be cost-effective here in the United States. To determine if it’s a wise idea, try connecting a steady load of about 1 kW to your generator through a kWh meter (like the inexpensive Kill A Watt unit) and measure exactly how much fuel the generator consumes to produce 1 kWh. Compare the utility’s retail electricity rate that you pay per kWh, the wholesale rate that they will pay you for electricity you generate, and your cost per kWh for bringing the fuel to your Lister. Even with your “free” fuel source, you’ll still have to consider the costs of procuring, transporting, and processing the vegetable oil, as well as engine wear, maintenance, and your time costs. The profit margin will be slim at best, and most likely negative.
If you somehow still find the math favorable, consult with a renewable energy dealer for advice on which battery-based grid-tie inverters to consider and the cost of the balance-of-system components, wiring, permits, and inspections you’ll need. It’s unlikely that any “direct” batteryless grid-tie inverter would be guaranteed to work properly with the output of your generator, even if you were to convert it to produce DC directly. These inverters are intended for either the DC output of a photovoltaic system or the wild three-phase AC output of a small wind or hydro turbine rectified to DC.
Once you have a grid-tie system cost estimate from a dealer, you can predict how long it would take you to pay off the investment—I would guess many years, if ever. Instead, consider adding a solar-electric array with battery backup to your grid-tie system instead. Then, in the dire case of a grid blackout with no solar input, you can listen to the gentle “putt-putt-putt” of your veggie-oil-powered Lister while your inverter powers your home from the battery bank.
Dan Fink • www.otherpower.com