Rolling on Sunshine: Page 3 of 3

A 1973 VW conversion

Inside this Article

First step: The author removes the internal-combustion engine components and the fossil-fuel grime that goes with them.
Using actuators, the PV array tilts up to 40° for optimal exposure. Underneath, a homemade bunk provides sleeping and storage.
The charging port.
An 88-horsepower HEPVS AC51 motor is mated to the stock transmission with an adaptor plate from Canadian Electric Vehicles.
The VW needed more than just a power plant transplant to make it functional: the interior got an upgrade, too.
A reupholstered bench seat folds into a bed and hides the battery box.
Twelve voltmeters on the dash measure each battery’s voltage, an indicator of state of charge. The switches allow real-time control of various fans and certain controller functions.
Twelve Trojan T-1275 flooded lead-acid batteries in a custom enclosure provide energy for propulsion and coach appliances.
Between the batteries and motor compartment hide the two ThunderStruck AC chargers and the main disconnect (center).
In the “motor” compartment: 1. Inverter; 2. DC-DC converter; 3. DC breakers for (L to R) PV array, inverter, DC converter, AC chargers; 4. Curtis controller; 5. Control for AC chargers; 6. 240 VAC input; 7. Throttle control; 8. HPEVS AC51 motor.
A Spyglass meter for the Curtis motor controller displays amps, volts, rpm, and controller and motor temperatures.
EV conversions aren’t usually known for their range, but with on-board PV charging and a little patience, this VW is ready for extended road trips, and luxury camping with electric appliances.
Camping is just a bit cushier with the on-board amenities offered by the PV system.
The Belan kids—Lyric (left) and Brook—enjoy the upper bunk. Mom Kira sewed the tent canvas, while dad Brett designed the pop-up structure.
Time for a recharge—Kira and the kids nap in the upper bunk, while the PV array charges the batteries.
The kids enjoy the view from the rooftop pop-up PV tent. The back sheets on the modules allow ambient light into the tent space.
A Dometic fridge fits between the front seats for easy access to chilled treats.
A custom kitchen includes a sink, potable and graywater storage, and fold-out tables that reveal an induction cooktop.
A JLD404 meter monitors battery performance—displaying volts, amps, and amp-hours.


The inverter is a 2 kW EV Enterprises Blue Flash, which inverts 144 VDC to 120 VAC quite efficiently without any magnetic component. We can cook, cool, and run my electric chain saw, which is great for prepping firewood for campfires.

Charging from the Grid

I have two ThunderStruck 2,500 W chargers. At 20 A each, a full battery recharge takes two hours and 20 minutes. Pro­gramming the chargers is a snap; I can create charging profiles for 110 VAC as well as 220 VAC at any current draw I choose.

Regenerative Braking

I use a small vacuum pump for the brake booster, which runs when 12 V key ignition is on. The brakes work nicely. The regenerative brake adds stopping control for the heavy VW. Regeneration engages the moment I take my foot off the accelerator. I recently took the fully charged van up a mountain, climbing a steep hill for 18 miles. I recharged with PV at the top of the mountain, then traveled another 20 or so miles on the plateau. By the time I made it back down the mountain, the van’s batteries had a full charge from a half hour of regenerative braking—I was able to put 20 miles of range back into the pack on the downgrade.


After resolving some brake issues, the van went from a 35-mile range to a 50-mile range. The pistons on the brake calipers were stuck and dragging on both front brake rotors. I was happy to get the added range. If the vehicle is driven casually (30 to 35 mph), a 75-mile range is possible. This is a camper and I’m in no hurry. I’m definitely the minority.

Locally, there is no need for plugging in. This means it is a “zero-fossil-fuel” vehicle, since it charges the batteries with free solar energy. The van usually sits for 5 hours in the sun every clear day, with the PV system providing 40 Ah—25 miles—to the batteries. It’s a joy to have your fuel tank refilling on its own! A car like this, for the proverbial soccer mom, provides a way to get the kids to and from activities, and her to and from errands, with no impact on the budget or the Arctic ice caps.

With that said, how does it do on longer trips? We decided the next test was to see how the van performed on the open road.

I built this vehicle with the dream of taking my family to the Pacific coast for camping trips, and that was our first test (see “Solar-Powered Road Trip” sidebar). The van performed beyond my expectations, getting consistent 40-plus mile runs (and sometimes even 50 miles on a full charge). Unfortunately, the coast was cloudy most of the time, so it was necessary to find charging stations for recharging the batteries. After a couple of hours of charging and the batteries full, we’d hit the road again.

We drove about 100 miles per day, traveling slowly, and averaging about 40 mph—which was scary at times, with traffic screaming by. It felt like we were trying to slow down the whole human race and its frantic affinity for speed. But I soon got familiar with the necessary style of driving the van and found a cadence for yielding to faster traffic while maintaining an efficient 40 mph or so. Heading up long, steep grades was rough, requiring lots of energy from the batteries and going slowly. Fortunately, we weren’t alone—big trucks and RVs kept us company.

It wasn’t until the last leg of our journey—camping beside the Smith River—that the PV array generated 55 Ah of charge from the sun in one day, as shown on the JLD 404 meter. I designed the system to provide a full charge to the batteries on a full day of summer sun. However, my Drok controllers were limiting the energy transferred from the array to the batteries. The meter showed only 6 to 7 amps of output. In the cool redwood forest climate, the meter had shown 8 amps, revealing to me that the modules were losing performance as ambient temperature climbed.

The ability to power electric appliances is terrific—I can run my electric chain saw to cut firewood or cook on the induction cooktop. An hour of cooking is equivalent to one-eighth of the van’s daily range. The refrigerator runs at 36 watts, for 15% of the day, consuming about 150 Wh daily. Nothing else is a significant load.

It took me two years of patience and steady focus to build this safe, functional vehicle, and the payoff has been rich. We had only two malfunctions the whole trip—one battery meter stopped working and a brake clip from the brake pad area broke. Other than that, things went smoothly.

There was something really special about pushing through the anxiety of going 40 mph when everyone else was going 60. Settling into that stillness was something we’ll take with us forever, and slowing down gave me a perspective of my family I never would have had speeding along and missing the view.

Web Extras

Find out more about the Belans’ electric VW at

On Facebook and Instagram, find them at Solar Electric VW Bus

Comments (10)

zamboni's picture

The article says Brett consumes 80Ah out of the 150Ah batteries for an 80% DOD. I think i'm not understanding this completely. Wouldn't 80Ah be 53% DOD? Is he de-rating the capacity of the batteries to an effective 100Ah to adjust for the high discharge rate? And if so, is that why 80% DOD is acceptable? I have always read that 50% is the deepest one should take a golf-cart battery. I'm only familiar with lead-acid battery performance in home use, not EVs, so maybe it's different?

Carl Rosenberg's picture

Brett, Your story and conversion it totally inspiring. In multiple ways, your family's personal commitment to 'slowing down', your technical expertise, and attention to detail. Like Allen, I have rode the pacific coast on bicycle and generally had wonderful respect from most drivers. I drive regularly 4000 miles from New Mexico to Alaska at 55 mph, getting significantly better mileage than my speeding neighbors on the road. In this time of limited resources, technology will not save us, we all will serve the planet to slow down and do more with less.
Carl Rosenberg

Kurt Bankord's picture

Wait, isn't 40 mph top speed faster than a gas powered VW van? :-)
But, have to agree that I'd be concerned about the speed differential. Given all the torque of the electric motor, would altering the gearing provide more speed and not use any more juice? Not sure how easy it is to change ratios on a VW. Just a thought if you're not having any issues climbing hills. Very cool build.

Michael Welch's picture
No, wind resistance goes up exponentially with speed--drag increases proportionately with the square of speed. So it's not about the amount of extra energy it takes to spin the electric motor faster, it's about the extra energy it takes to overcome wind resistance.
Kurt Bankord's picture

Good point, although I wasn't saying spin the motor faster, but up the gearing of the drive train.

Michael Welch's picture
Right. Same problem, though. Air drag is the biggest factor in energy use at higher speeds.

This is a very concise, informative and interesting combination of solar PV, storage and usage in an automotive application. Kudos to you for making lower tech tried-and-true components work together.

That said, the mental image of you cruising serenely along at 40 MPH on busy highways with operating speeds of 60 MPH is positively chilling - your rolling roadblock constitutes a clear and present danger to motorists around you.

Your choice to operate in that manner in those conditions endangers you, your family, and everyone around you. Innocent people are hurt or worse when other motorists inevitably fail to account for your imposition of sudden reductions in traffic speed - incidents of following too closely, rapid lane changes, and unsafe overtaking maneuvers are certain to occur.

You are welcome to slow your own pace and enjoy the scenery, but not at the expense of the safety of others. You are in breach of both traffic laws and the unwritten social contract providing for civilized sharing of a common asset - public roads.

Colin McCubbin's picture

Curtis, What a mean spirited put down! If everyone drove slower then a lot less fuel of any type would be consumed for the same distance travelled.

Brett, Great project! Good luck with Phase Two as well! I'm hoping one day retrofit my self converted Pontiac Firefly 'vert conversion from lead acid to lithium iron phosphate batteries, definitely a good choice.

Allan Sindelar's picture

Mr. Kinder,
While I respect your single point - that you disapprove of a slow motor vehicle on a highway - the tone of your comment is painful to me. In your stridency, you sound to me like a judgemental mother shaming a small child.

I have twice ridden that same route on a bicycle with a trailer. It's considered one of the premier bicycle touring routes in the country, yet some sections of the Pacific Coast Highway have no shoulder at all and cars must slow to my human-powered speed while waiting for their chance to pass. Would you also shame me for my joyous human-powered journey, even though I too am 'a rolling roadblock' and constitute 'a clear and present danger to motorists' around me?

If you're willing, I'd prefer to hear you own and offer your opinion as just that, and let go of your implicit message that you're right, the EV family is wrong, and the family should be scolded for moving a a slower pace then most traffic. In my opinion, there's enough room on the roads for all of us.


It was this cringe-worthy phrase in the OP's post that drove me to respond in the manner I did:

"We drove about 100 miles per day, traveling slowly, and averaging about 40 mph—which was scary at times, with traffic screaming by. It felt like we were trying to slow down the whole human race and its frantic affinity for speed."

That's a recipe for tragedy - the laws of physics are strictly enforced. Differential speeds kill. Call me strident, mean-spirited, whatever, but it was my intention, and it appears to have succeeded, to call attention to a significant safety concern.

I support EVs and their displacing fossil-fueled vehicles can't come soon enough, but they have to keep up with traffic. Busy public roadways are no place to impose one's own feelings about the pace of modern life. Motorists have a reasonable expectation for safe and efficient movement of traffic.

Though I'm a right-coaster, I've driven the PCH and appreciate its unique place in the US road network. I agree with sharing surface roads (but NOT superhighways) with much slower traffic, be it cyclists, ag equipment, horse drawn wagons, etc, but reasonable precautions must be taken - I wonder if this project vehicle could spare a few Watts to operate flashing amber LED lights whenever it finds itself at a speed below a road's operating speed...

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