Morningstar (morningstarcorp.com) has introduced its TS-MPPT-600V charge controller for PV array open-circuit voltage (Voc) of up to 600 VDC; a nominal battery voltage of 48 VDC; and a 60-amp maximum output current. High-voltage input can yield many advantages, such as smaller-diameter (less expensive) wire for long wire runs between the array and controller. Since more PV modules can be wired in series before reaching 600 VDC, the controller can eliminate parallel wire runs and a combiner box. Additionally, adding battery backup to a typical high-voltage grid-tied system can be accomplished without having to rewire the array. The TS-MPPT-600V has four-stage charging (MPPT, absorption, float, and equalize), utilizes open communications protocols, and has several options for communication ports (Ethernet, EIA-485, RS-232, and MeterBus).