OFF-GRID BATTERYLESS HYDRO-ELECTRIC SYSTEM If your stream has enough potential, you may decide to go with an AC-direct system. This consists of a turbine generator that produces AC output at 120 or 240 volts, which can be sent directly to standard household loads. The system is controlled by diverting energy in excess of load requirements to dump loads, such as water- or air-heating elements. This technique keeps the total load on the generator constant. A limitation of these systems is that the peak or surge loads cannot exceed the output of the generator, which is determined by the stream’s available head and flow. This type of system needs to be large to meet peak electrical loads, so it can often generate enough energy for all household needs, including water and space heating.